Amino acids and glycogenesis
Amino acids and glycogenesis: Amino acids are a group of organic compounds that make up the protein building blocks that make up 75% of the body. They are involved in almost every aspect of the body, including growth and development, healing and repair, regular digestion and energy supply to the body. Amino acids are carboxylic acids that contain a predominant aliphatic amino group with characteristic stereochemistry at the alpha position of the carboxyl group. Proteins are biosynthesized from 20 amino acids that require strict genetic regulation. Thus the essential unit of protein is amino acid.
Glycogenesis, from carbohydrates, leads to the formation of glycogen, which is the main nutrient contained in animal liver and muscle cells. When blood glucose levels are high enough for liver and muscle cells to retain excess glucose, glycogenesis occurs. The hormone insulin activates glycogenesis. Glycogen synthesis from caffeine, glycogenesis, etc. Glycogen degradation, glucose release, glycogenolysis. Glycolysis is the degradation of glucose into pyruvic acid.
Amino acid structure and classification
Amino acids are classified into eight groups: aliphatic, organic, amide, organic, sulfur-containing, alcoholic, aromatic, and imine. Alanine, glycine, valine, leucine and isoleucine have aliphatic carbon side chain) groups. Glutamic and aspartic acids form an organic acid group.
Difference between essential and non-essential amino acids: The body can produce non-essential amino acids, while the body cannot make essential amino acids, so we have to get them from our diet. In order to produce the full spectrum of proteins the body needs, we must have all the amino acids.
All amino acids have the same essential structure. Amino acid structure is described as a carbon called the alpha carbon which is in the middle of each amino acid and has four groups attached to it – a hydrogen, an alpha-carboxyl group, an alpha-amino group. and the R-group. , often called side chains.
Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis
Glycogen synthesis from caffeine, glycogenesis, etc. Glycogen degradation, glucose release glycogenolysis. Glycolysis is the degradation of glucose into pyruvic acid. Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen to produce glucose. It is present in the cell cytosol and has the opposite reaction to glycogenesis: that is, during fasting or between meals, glycogenolysis occurs.
The effect of insulin also applies to the synthesis of lipids and proteins. It promotes lipogenesis and protein synthesis and inhibits lipolysis and protein degradation. In response to the presence of insulin, the liver experiences a decrease in gluconeogenesis and an increase in glycogenesis.
Glycogenolysis plays an important role, in particular, in the fight-or-flight response and in the control of blood glucose levels. The breakdown of glycogen in myocytes (muscle cells) helps provide an immediate supply of glucose-6-phosphate for glycolysis, providing energy for muscle contraction. The main purpose of glycogenesis is to ensure that glucose does not leave the body. Glucose is important because it is the main energy supply for the body. Without an adequate supply of glucose in the bloodstream, vital organs can slowly shut down.